A diamonds is called a diamond stone, which has been given a special shape that reveals its beauty completely. A special property is the fluorescence of a diamond – its ability to glow brightly in ultraviolet light. The jewel is used to make jewelry. The stone has an unusual shine, and in the rays of light it simply “lights up” and shimmers in different colors of the rainbow.
The classic diamond is colorless and transparent. But there are also fancy colors that are less common and more expensive:
- brown or cognac;
Stones acquire a multi-colored color due to the inclusion of atoms of iron, boron, nitrogen in the crystal lattice. This happens under the action of high temperature and pressure. The rarest are black, pink, and blue diamonds. They are highly prized and usually only found in private collections.
A white diamond without defects is called a “clear water diamond”. If you put it in water, it is absolutely invisible. The most famous of these stones is the Cullinan diamond. It was originally the largest diamond at 3106 carats. In 1906, the famous jeweler Joseph Ascher, after many months of studying the stone, split it into many pieces. 9 large and 96 small diamonds were made from the diamond.
Diamonds have always been participants in historical and literary events:
- Great Mogul – a rose-shaped diamond was made from a diamond weighing 767 carats, its owner was Shah Jahan, the ruler of the Mughal empire; Golden Jubilee – a 545 carat brown diamond presented to the King of Thailand for the anniversary of his reign;
- Orlov – the largest copy of the Kremlin’s Diamond Fund;
- Sancy – acquired by the Louvre for a million francs;
- Koh-i-noor – adorns the crown with diamonds belonging to the English queen;
- Hope – a diamond with a curse, all its owners experienced misfortune, now the stone worth $ 350 million is kept at the Smithsonian Institution;
The heart of the ocean is the famous blue diamond from the movie Titanic, which belonged to the heroine of the movie Rose
They began to process diamonds almost immediately after their discovery. The initial processing was minimal – one edge of the crystal was grinded, and then polished.
The standard number of facets in diamonds of the highest standard is 57. This number was determined by a variety of physical and mathematical calculations. It is believed that 33 facets at the top of the diamond and 24 facets at the bottom maximize the brilliance and play of light. The round diamond shape with 57 facets is the most common. This treatment is used for stones weighing at least 0.05 carats. Smaller crystals are cut into 17 facets.
- The clear structure of the faceted stone appearance has been determined:
- two main parts – a crown and a pavilion, separated by a girdle;
- the largest facet is located in the crown, called the platform;
- 8 wedges extend down from the platform, touching the 8 main faces of the crown;
- 16 wedges extend upward from the girdle;
- the pavilion contains 24 wedges, has an elongated shape;
- the lowest point of the stone is called the culet. In the second half of the 20th century, new methods of cutting diamonds were developed.
They are mainly used for large stones weighing more than 1 carat. The real methods of cutting diamonds are round, royal, and majestic. The last two are square.
There are fantasy ways:
These methods are used depending on the initial shape of the diamonds and the customer’s needs. Rhodium plated diamonds are stones coated with the finest layer of rhodium. The metal increases the strength of the diamond, protects it from damage, and prolongs its service life.
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